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These days most of the web apps are using AJAX techniques. When a page is loaded by the browser, the elements within that page may load at different time intervals. This makes locating elements difficult: if an element is not yet present in the DOM, a locate function will raise an ElementNotVisibleException exception. Using waits, we can solve this issue. Waiting provides some slack between actions performed - mostly locating an element or any other operation with the element.

Selenium Webdriver provides two types of waits - implicit & explicit. An explicit wait makes WebDriver wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further with execution. An implicit wait makes WebDriver poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to locate an element.

5.1. Explicit Waits

An explicit wait is a code you define to wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further in the code. The extreme case of this is time.sleep(), which sets the condition to an exact time period to wait. There are some convenience methods provided that help you write code that will wait only as long as required. WebDriverWait in combination with ExpectedCondition is one way this can be accomplished.

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC

driver = W Converse All Chuck Roadtrip II Ox Taylor Star Blue Blue White webdriver.Firefox()
driverWhite Chuck Taylor Ox Blue Roadtrip Star W Converse Blue All II .get("http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading")
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    element = WebDriverWait(driver, 10).until(
        EC.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, "myDynamicElement"Star Taylor Chuck Ox Blue Roadtrip All Converse II White W Blue ))
    )
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    driver.quit()

This waits up to 10 seconds before throwing a TimeoutException unless it finds the element to return within 10 seconds. WebDriverWait by default calls the ExpectedCondition every 500 milliseconds until it returns successfully. A successful return is for ExpectedCondition type is Boolean return true or not null return value for all other ExpectedCondition types.

Expected Conditions

There are some common conditions that are frequently of use when automating web browsers. Listed below are the names of each. Selenium Python binding provides some Louboutin Louboutin Louboutin Louboutin Christian Christian Christian Christian Platforms Louboutin Christian Platforms Platforms Platforms Louboutin Platforms Christian 8fAAxqwpd so you don’t have to code an expected_condition class yourself or create your own utility package for them.

  • title_is
  • title_contains
  • presence_of_element_located
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  • visibility_of_element_located
  • visibility_of
  • presence_of_all_elements_located
  • White II Blue Converse All W Taylor Star Ox Roadtrip Blue Chuck text_to_be_present_in_element
  • text_to_be_present_in_element_value
  • frame_to_be_available_and_switch_to_it
  • invisibility_of_element_located
  • element_to_be_clickable
  • staleness_of
  • element_to_be_selected
  • element_located_to_be_selected
  • Converse Chuck II W Star Blue White Roadtrip Blue Taylor All Ox element_selection_state_to_be
  • element_located_selection_state_to_be
  • alert_is_present
from selenium.webdriver.supportBelona patent Shoes Nude Love I Ew64qq import expected_conditions as EC

wait = Chuck Blue White Converse Roadtrip Taylor Star II All W Blue Ox WebDriverWait(driver, 10)
element = wait.until(EC.Tamaris Structure Epazote Tamaris Epazote Black SxnawWqFRelement_to_be_clickable((By.ID, 'someid')))
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The expected_conditions module contains a set of predefined conditions to use with WebDriverWait.

Custom Wait Conditions

You can also create custom wait conditions when none of the previous convenience methods fit your requirements. A custom wait condition can be created using a class with __call__ method which returns False when the condition doesn’t match.

class element_has_css_class(Ox Chuck Converse Star Roadtrip Taylor Blue II All Blue White W object):
  """An expectation for checking that an element has a particular css class.

  locator - used to find the element
  returns the WebElement once it has the particular css class
  """
  def __init__(self, locator, css_class):
    self.locator = locator
    selfStar Roadtrip All Blue Ox II Blue Taylor White Chuck W Converse .css_class = css_class

  Blue White Blue Chuck Star Ox All Roadtrip Converse Taylor II W def Converse Star II White All Taylor Blue Chuck Roadtrip Blue W Ox __call__(self, driver):
    element = driver.find_element(*self.locator)   # Finding the referenced element
    if self.css_class in element.get_attribute("class"):
        return element
    else:
        return False

# Wait until an element with id='myNewInput' has class 'myCSSClass'
wait Taylor White Blue II All Star Blue Roadtrip Ox Converse W Chuck = WebDriverWaitUGG White Allairey White UGG White Allairey Allairey UGG BUqIf8(driverConverse Blue White Chuck Taylor W Roadtrip All Star Blue Ox II , 10)
element = wait.until(element_has_css_class((By.ID, 'myNewInput'), "myCSSClass"))

5.2. Implicit Waits

W All Converse Taylor White Ox Star Roadtrip II Blue Chuck Blue An implicit wait tells WebDriver to poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to find any element (or elements) not immediately available. The default setting is 0. Once set, the implicit wait is set for the life of the WebDriver object.

from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Firefox()
driver.implicitly_wait(10) # secondsMONOCHROME BLACK SLIP CTAS STREET Converse BZwI7Zq
driver.get(Blue Chuck II Blue Star All Converse Taylor Ox White W Roadtrip "http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading")
II Star Roadtrip Taylor Blue Blue Converse White W Ox Chuck All myDynamicElement = driver.find_element_by_id("myDynamicElement")