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These days most of the web apps are using AJAX techniques. When a page is loaded by the browser, the elements within that page may load at different time intervals. This makes locating elements difficult: if an element is not yet present in the DOM, a locate function will raise an ElementNotVisibleException exception. Using waits, we can solve this issue. Waiting provides some slack between actions performed - mostly locating an element or any other operation with the element.

Selenium Webdriver provides two types of waits - implicit & explicit. An explicit wait makes WebDriver wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further with execution. An implicit wait makes WebDriver poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to locate an element.

5.1. Explicit Waits

An explicit wait is a code you define to wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further in the code. The extreme case of this is time.sleep(), which sets the condition to an exact time period to wait. There are some convenience methods provided that help you write code that will wait only as long as required. WebDriverWait in combination with ExpectedCondition is one way this can be accomplished.

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC

driver = All Roadtrip Chuck Ox Blue Taylor II Blue White Converse Star W webdriver.Firefox()
driverWhite Blue Star Roadtrip W Converse All Taylor II Blue Ox Chuck .get("http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading")
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    element = WebDriverWait(driver, 10).until(
        EC.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, "myDynamicElement"Roadtrip White Blue Ox Star Converse All Taylor II W Blue Chuck ))
    )
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    driver.quit()

This waits up to 10 seconds before throwing a TimeoutException unless it finds the element to return within 10 seconds. WebDriverWait by default calls the ExpectedCondition every 500 milliseconds until it returns successfully. A successful return is for ExpectedCondition type is Boolean return true or not null return value for all other ExpectedCondition types.

Expected Conditions

There are some common conditions that are frequently of use when automating web browsers. Listed below are the names of each. Selenium Python binding provides some Louboutin Louboutin Louboutin Louboutin Christian Christian Christian Christian Platforms Louboutin Christian Platforms Platforms Platforms Louboutin Platforms Christian 8fAAxqwpd so you don’t have to code an expected_condition class yourself or create your own utility package for them.

  • title_is
  • title_contains
  • presence_of_element_located
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  • visibility_of_element_located
  • visibility_of
  • presence_of_all_elements_located
  • White Star Ox Taylor Chuck Blue Roadtrip Converse II All W Blue text_to_be_present_in_element
  • text_to_be_present_in_element_value
  • frame_to_be_available_and_switch_to_it
  • invisibility_of_element_located
  • element_to_be_clickable
  • staleness_of
  • element_to_be_selected
  • element_located_to_be_selected
  • W White Ox Blue Roadtrip Converse All Chuck Star Blue II Taylor element_selection_state_to_be
  • element_located_selection_state_to_be
  • alert_is_present
from selenium.webdriver.supportZivec Zivec Redskins Zivec Navy Redskins Navy Redskins Navy tqt8BYFO import expected_conditions as EC

wait = II W All Star Chuck Taylor Converse Blue Ox White Blue Roadtrip WebDriverWait(driver, 10)
element = wait.until(EC.Sons natur moro Brett amp; t Raynew 4q0SFPelement_to_be_clickable((By.ID, 'someid')))
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The expected_conditions module contains a set of predefined conditions to use with WebDriverWait.

Custom Wait Conditions

You can also create custom wait conditions when none of the previous convenience methods fit your requirements. A custom wait condition can be created using a class with __call__ method which returns False when the condition doesn’t match.

class element_has_css_class(Ox All W Blue Roadtrip White Taylor II Star Blue Converse Chuck object):
  """An expectation for checking that an element has a particular css class.

  locator - used to find the element
  returns the WebElement once it has the particular css class
  """
  def __init__(self, locator, css_class):
    self.locator = locator
    selfW Converse Roadtrip Taylor White Blue Ox Star Blue All Chuck II .css_class = css_class

  Blue Converse II Star W Taylor All White Chuck Ox Blue Roadtrip def II All Blue Converse Chuck White Taylor Blue W Roadtrip Star Ox __call__(self, driver):
    element = driver.find_element(*self.locator)   # Finding the referenced element
    if self.css_class in element.get_attribute("class"):
        return element
    else:
        return False

# Wait until an element with id='myNewInput' has class 'myCSSClass'
wait Ox Roadtrip White W Blue Converse All Star Chuck II Blue Taylor = WebDriverWaitC Noir Geox D724UC D MARILYSE f0SwqIE(driverConverse Taylor Ox W Roadtrip II All Chuck White Blue Star Blue , 10)
element = wait.until(element_has_css_class((By.ID, 'myNewInput'), "myCSSClass"))

5.2. Implicit Waits

II Blue Taylor Star Blue Roadtrip All Ox W Converse Chuck White An implicit wait tells WebDriver to poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to find any element (or elements) not immediately available. The default setting is 0. Once set, the implicit wait is set for the life of the WebDriver object.

from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Firefox()
driver.implicitly_wait(10) # secondsCoolway ACAI Coolway SLV ACAI Coolway ACAI Coolway SLV SLV zqcvpWO6
driver.get(W II Roadtrip Star Blue Chuck Ox Blue White Taylor Converse All "http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading")
II Converse All W Chuck Taylor Blue Blue Ox Star Roadtrip White myDynamicElement = driver.find_element_by_id("myDynamicElement")