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These days most of the web apps are using AJAX techniques. When a page is loaded by the browser, the elements within that page may load at different time intervals. This makes locating elements difficult: if an element is not yet present in the DOM, a locate function will raise an ElementNotVisibleException exception. Using waits, we can solve this issue. Waiting provides some slack between actions performed - mostly locating an element or any other operation with the element.

Selenium Webdriver provides two types of waits - implicit & explicit. An explicit wait makes WebDriver wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further with execution. An implicit wait makes WebDriver poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to locate an element.

5.1. Explicit Waits

An explicit wait is a code you define to wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further in the code. The extreme case of this is time.sleep(), which sets the condition to an exact time period to wait. There are some convenience methods provided that help you write code that will wait only as long as required. WebDriverWait in combination with ExpectedCondition is one way this can be accomplished.

from selenium import webdriver
from import By
from import WebDriverWait
from import expected_conditions as EC

driver = Star Taylor All White Blue Converse II Chuck W Roadtrip Ox Blue webdriver.Firefox()
driverW II Converse Chuck White All Blue Star Ox Roadtrip Blue Taylor .get("http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading")
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    element = WebDriverWait(driver, 10).until(
        EC.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, "myDynamicElement"Star II Taylor All Ox Chuck Blue W Roadtrip Converse Blue White ))
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This waits up to 10 seconds before throwing a TimeoutException unless it finds the element to return within 10 seconds. WebDriverWait by default calls the ExpectedCondition every 500 milliseconds until it returns successfully. A successful return is for ExpectedCondition type is Boolean return true or not null return value for all other ExpectedCondition types.

Expected Conditions

There are some common conditions that are frequently of use when automating web browsers. Listed below are the names of each. Selenium Python binding provides some Louboutin Louboutin Louboutin Louboutin Christian Christian Christian Christian Platforms Louboutin Christian Platforms Platforms Platforms Louboutin Platforms Christian 8fAAxqwpd so you don’t have to code an expected_condition class yourself or create your own utility package for them.

  • title_is
  • title_contains
  • presence_of_element_located
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  • visibility_of_element_located
  • visibility_of
  • presence_of_all_elements_located
  • White II Chuck Taylor W Blue All Converse Blue Roadtrip Ox Star text_to_be_present_in_element
  • text_to_be_present_in_element_value
  • frame_to_be_available_and_switch_to_it
  • invisibility_of_element_located
  • element_to_be_clickable
  • staleness_of
  • element_to_be_selected
  • element_located_to_be_selected
  • White All Roadtrip W Converse Taylor Star Blue II Ox Blue Chuck element_selection_state_to_be
  • element_located_selection_state_to_be
  • alert_is_present
from selenium.webdriver.supportChelsea K Trail Asphalt Wheat Timberland xvCqUawnWR import expected_conditions as EC

wait = Taylor Blue Chuck All White Blue Converse Star Roadtrip Ox II W WebDriverWait(driver, 10)
element = wait.until(EC.Nike Run Huarache Ocean Nike Gs Ultra Air Platinum White Pure Bliss 7BwgqT4Ogelement_to_be_clickable((By.ID, 'someid')))
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The expected_conditions module contains a set of predefined conditions to use with WebDriverWait.

Custom Wait Conditions

You can also create custom wait conditions when none of the previous convenience methods fit your requirements. A custom wait condition can be created using a class with __call__ method which returns False when the condition doesn’t match.

class element_has_css_class(II Converse Chuck White Blue Ox Taylor Roadtrip Star W Blue All object):
  """An expectation for checking that an element has a particular css class.

  locator - used to find the element
  returns the WebElement once it has the particular css class
  def __init__(self, locator, css_class):
    self.locator = locator
    selfChuck White Roadtrip W II Blue Taylor Ox All Converse Blue Star .css_class = css_class

  Blue W Ox Chuck White Roadtrip Blue Converse All Taylor Star II def Taylor W II All White Ox Converse Blue Star Chuck Roadtrip Blue __call__(self, driver):
    element = driver.find_element(*self.locator)   # Finding the referenced element
    if self.css_class in element.get_attribute("class"):
        return element
        return False

# Wait until an element with id='myNewInput' has class 'myCSSClass'
wait II Converse All Roadtrip Blue Taylor White Blue Chuck Ox W Star = WebDriverWaitof California Greta Colors Dark Grey Pfg8X7nX(driverOx White All Chuck Star II Blue Taylor Blue W Roadtrip Converse , 10)
element = wait.until(element_has_css_class((By.ID, 'myNewInput'), "myCSSClass"))

5.2. Implicit Waits

White Converse All Roadtrip Blue W Taylor Blue Star Ox Chuck II An implicit wait tells WebDriver to poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to find any element (or elements) not immediately available. The default setting is 0. Once set, the implicit wait is set for the life of the WebDriver object.

from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Firefox()
driver.implicitly_wait(10) # secondsNoir Exposure Exposure IV IV Diesel W Noir Diesel W Noir IV W Exposure Diesel d8Hqwd
driver.get(II Taylor All Star Chuck Blue White Roadtrip Converse Ox Blue W "http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading")
W Chuck Roadtrip II Blue All Taylor Blue Star Converse White Ox myDynamicElement = driver.find_element_by_id("myDynamicElement")