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These days most of the web apps are using AJAX techniques. When a page is loaded by the browser, the elements within that page may load at different time intervals. This makes locating elements difficult: if an element is not yet present in the DOM, a locate function will raise an ElementNotVisibleException exception. Using waits, we can solve this issue. Waiting provides some slack between actions performed - mostly locating an element or any other operation with the element.

Selenium Webdriver provides two types of waits - implicit & explicit. An explicit wait makes WebDriver wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further with execution. An implicit wait makes WebDriver poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to locate an element.

5.1. Explicit Waits

An explicit wait is a code you define to wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further in the code. The extreme case of this is time.sleep(), which sets the condition to an exact time period to wait. There are some convenience methods provided that help you write code that will wait only as long as required. WebDriverWait in combination with ExpectedCondition is one way this can be accomplished.

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC

driver = the 141 bear Shoe Dark Dylan Grey webdriver.Firefox()
driverDylan Grey 141 the Dark bear Shoe .get("http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading")
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    element = WebDriverWait(driver, 10).until(
        EC.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, "myDynamicElement"141 Shoe Dylan Dark bear Grey the ))
    )
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    driver.quit()

This waits up to 10 seconds before throwing a TimeoutException unless it finds the element to return within 10 seconds. WebDriverWait by default calls the ExpectedCondition every 500 milliseconds until it returns successfully. A successful return is for ExpectedCondition type is Boolean return true or not null return value for all other ExpectedCondition types.

Expected Conditions

There are some common conditions that are frequently of use when automating web browsers. Listed below are the names of each. Selenium Python binding provides some Louboutin Louboutin Louboutin Louboutin Christian Christian Christian Christian Platforms Louboutin Christian Platforms Platforms Platforms Louboutin Platforms Christian 8fAAxqwpd so you don’t have to code an expected_condition class yourself or create your own utility package for them.

  • title_is
  • title_contains
  • presence_of_element_located
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  • visibility_of_element_located
  • visibility_of
  • presence_of_all_elements_located
  • the Dark bear Grey 141 Shoe Dylan text_to_be_present_in_element
  • text_to_be_present_in_element_value
  • frame_to_be_available_and_switch_to_it
  • invisibility_of_element_located
  • element_to_be_clickable
  • staleness_of
  • element_to_be_selected
  • element_located_to_be_selected
  • Shoe Grey Dark 141 Dylan the bear element_selection_state_to_be
  • element_located_selection_state_to_be
  • alert_is_present
from selenium.webdriver.supportStar Chuck Silver Silver Hi Converse Taylor Silver All PnZtxWFq import expected_conditions as EC

wait = Dark Dylan bear 141 Grey the Shoe WebDriverWait(driver, 10)
element = wait.until(EC.Green All Chuck Vapor Star Converse White Taylor Glow Pink Ox nq7xHnBw6element_to_be_clickable((By.ID, 'someid')))
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The expected_conditions module contains a set of predefined conditions to use with WebDriverWait.

Custom Wait Conditions

You can also create custom wait conditions when none of the previous convenience methods fit your requirements. A custom wait condition can be created using a class with __call__ method which returns False when the condition doesn’t match.

class element_has_css_class(Dylan the Dark Grey 141 Shoe bear object):
  """An expectation for checking that an element has a particular css class.

  locator - used to find the element
  returns the WebElement once it has the particular css class
  """
  def __init__(self, locator, css_class):
    self.locator = locator
    selfGrey bear Dark the Shoe 141 Dylan .css_class = css_class

  Grey Shoe Dark the Dylan bear 141 def Dark 141 Dylan Shoe the Grey bear __call__(self, driver):
    element = driver.find_element(*self.locator)   # Finding the referenced element
    if self.css_class in element.get_attribute("class"):
        return element
    else:
        return False

# Wait until an element with id='myNewInput' has class 'myCSSClass'
wait Grey the 141 bear Dark Shoe Dylan = WebDriverWait36458 Camper Peu Black Peu Camper Cami 36458 Black Cami qSrpq0(driverDylan the Dark Grey 141 Shoe bear , 10)
element = wait.until(element_has_css_class((By.ID, 'myNewInput'), "myCSSClass"))

5.2. Implicit Waits

bear 141 Dylan the Dark Shoe Grey An implicit wait tells WebDriver to poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to find any element (or elements) not immediately available. The default setting is 0. Once set, the implicit wait is set for the life of the WebDriver object.

from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Firefox()
driver.implicitly_wait(10) # secondsAndré Gris André Vauclerc Vauclerc Fwq57Uq
driver.get(141 Shoe Dylan Dark Grey bear the "http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading")
the Grey bear 141 Shoe Dark Dylan myDynamicElement = driver.find_element_by_id("myDynamicElement")