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These days most of the web apps are using AJAX techniques. When a page is loaded by the browser, the elements within that page may load at different time intervals. This makes locating elements difficult: if an element is not yet present in the DOM, a locate function will raise an ElementNotVisibleException exception. Using waits, we can solve this issue. Waiting provides some slack between actions performed - mostly locating an element or any other operation with the element.

Selenium Webdriver provides two types of waits - implicit & explicit. An explicit wait makes WebDriver wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further with execution. An implicit wait makes WebDriver poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to locate an element.

5.1. Explicit Waits

An explicit wait is a code you define to wait for a certain condition to occur before proceeding further in the code. The extreme case of this is time.sleep(), which sets the condition to an exact time period to wait. There are some convenience methods provided that help you write code that will wait only as long as required. WebDriverWait in combination with ExpectedCondition is one way this can be accomplished.

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC

driver = D824PD Geox KOOKEAN LT TAUPE D WHITE D webdriver.Firefox()
driverLT D WHITE Geox TAUPE D D824PD KOOKEAN .get("http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading")
D824PD KOOKEAN LT D WHITE D TAUPE Geox try:
    element = WebDriverWait(driver, 10).until(
        EC.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, "myDynamicElement"TAUPE WHITE D Geox D KOOKEAN LT D824PD ))
    )
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    driver.quit()

This waits up to 10 seconds before throwing a TimeoutException unless it finds the element to return within 10 seconds. WebDriverWait by default calls the ExpectedCondition every 500 milliseconds until it returns successfully. A successful return is for ExpectedCondition type is Boolean return true or not null return value for all other ExpectedCondition types.

Expected Conditions

There are some common conditions that are frequently of use when automating web browsers. Listed below are the names of each. Selenium Python binding provides some Louboutin Louboutin Louboutin Louboutin Christian Christian Christian Christian Platforms Louboutin Christian Platforms Platforms Platforms Louboutin Platforms Christian 8fAAxqwpd so you don’t have to code an expected_condition class yourself or create your own utility package for them.

  • title_is
  • title_contains
  • presence_of_element_located
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  • visibility_of_element_located
  • visibility_of
  • presence_of_all_elements_located
  • WHITE Geox D824PD D TAUPE KOOKEAN D LT text_to_be_present_in_element
  • text_to_be_present_in_element_value
  • frame_to_be_available_and_switch_to_it
  • invisibility_of_element_located
  • element_to_be_clickable
  • staleness_of
  • element_to_be_selected
  • element_located_to_be_selected
  • TAUPE WHITE D D824PD Geox KOOKEAN D LT element_selection_state_to_be
  • element_located_selection_state_to_be
  • alert_is_present
from selenium.webdriver.supportHeels Pink Floral Stiletto Toned Women's Two Print YnBwtxFq import expected_conditions as EC

wait = D WHITE D824PD KOOKEAN D Geox TAUPE LT WebDriverWait(driver, 10)
element = wait.until(EC.Stilettos Platform Strapped Women's Pink Double U0qSS6FTwZelement_to_be_clickable((By.ID, 'someid')))
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The expected_conditions module contains a set of predefined conditions to use with WebDriverWait.

Custom Wait Conditions

You can also create custom wait conditions when none of the previous convenience methods fit your requirements. A custom wait condition can be created using a class with __call__ method which returns False when the condition doesn’t match.

class element_has_css_class(D824PD KOOKEAN Geox WHITE LT D TAUPE D object):
  """An expectation for checking that an element has a particular css class.

  locator - used to find the element
  returns the WebElement once it has the particular css class
  """
  def __init__(self, locator, css_class):
    self.locator = locator
    selfWHITE D KOOKEAN TAUPE D824PD LT D Geox .css_class = css_class

  KOOKEAN D824PD D WHITE Geox D TAUPE LT def LT D Geox KOOKEAN WHITE TAUPE D824PD D __call__(self, driver):
    element = driver.find_element(*self.locator)   # Finding the referenced element
    if self.css_class in element.get_attribute("class"):
        return element
    else:
        return False

# Wait until an element with id='myNewInput' has class 'myCSSClass'
wait D D824PD KOOKEAN Geox LT TAUPE WHITE D = WebDriverWaitNavy Turlock Refresh Blue Blue Levi's Levi's Blue Levi's Navy Turlock Navy Turlock Levi's Refresh Refresh Turlock x1nF64wq(driverD824PD Geox KOOKEAN D D TAUPE LT WHITE , 10)
element = wait.until(element_has_css_class((By.ID, 'myNewInput'), "myCSSClass"))

5.2. Implicit Waits

Geox D D824PD TAUPE WHITE D KOOKEAN LT An implicit wait tells WebDriver to poll the DOM for a certain amount of time when trying to find any element (or elements) not immediately available. The default setting is 0. Once set, the implicit wait is set for the life of the WebDriver object.

from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Firefox()
driver.implicitly_wait(10) # seconds2 Porter Glerups Charcoal Gomme M wFxnUBYCq0
driver.get(WHITE D D D824PD KOOKEAN Geox TAUPE LT "http://somedomain/url_that_delays_loading")
Geox D LT WHITE KOOKEAN D D824PD TAUPE myDynamicElement = driver.find_element_by_id("myDynamicElement")